Digitization has impacted each enterprise and has converted real estate in all aspects. Before digitization, land statistics had been maintained manually by the Tahsildar. The loss of renovation of land statistics led to belongings scams, litigations and belongings disputes. To conquer this issue, the government of India authorities determined to digitize land statistics. 

In 2008, the government of India released the Digital India Land Record Modernization Program (DILRMP), formerly referred to as the National Land Records Modernization Program (NLRMP). 

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This application was released to digitize the statistics and prevent property-associated frauds.. Settlement statistics associated with the belongings are also up to date online to lessen land disputes. Around 90% of the states have digitized land statistics in India, and the states are in the manner of computerizing the land statistics. 

The authorities update those land statistics every day by surveying land parcels. Digitization has helped Indian residents to downland land statistics of any state from everywhere and at any time. Computerization has decreased people’s time and effort in roaming government places of work to fetch land statistics. The land statistics offer proprietor details, vicinity of the land etc. 

Computerization has additionally helped remedy confusion among authorities-owned property Computerization has additionally helped remedy confusion among authorities-owned property and private-owned property. If yes, carry on reading, and you’ll discover valuable information about buying and selling land.

What is a Land Record? 

A land record is a period used to consult some records. These encompass Records of Rights (RoRs), crop inspection sign-in, tenancy, mutation sign-in, disputed case sign-in and so on. The land file additionally consists of positive geological records regarding the land, including the form and length of the land and the form of soil on the land. 

The term land record is used to refer to several records. The type of records includes the Crop Inspection Register, Records of Rights (RoR), Mutation Register, Disputed Case Register and many more. We can also have the type of soil on the land and the shape and size of the land in land records.

Types of Land

There are four types of land that can be transacted in India –

●   Residential Land 

Residential lands refer to an empty plot solely used to build houses or apartments. This particular type of land is only used for individual housing. 

●   Agricultural Land

A significant portion of the Indian economy depends upon agriculture. According to recent data, more than 50% of India’s land is agricultural. These lands are mainly found in less developed areas and are very fertile.

●   Commercial Land 

Commercial land refers to the lands used for commercial purposes. For example, offices, shops, shopping malls, retail outlets, showrooms, warehouses etc.

●   Industrial Land

As the name suggests, we can get a general idea that industrial land is used for setting up industries. These types of land are usually bigger than the other types of land and are usually located on the outskirts of cities, away from the residential areas.

Digitization of land records in India

Digitization has changed and transformed Indian real estate in every way possible. The land records were maintained manually by the Revenue Inspectors before digitization. 

Karnataka was the first state in India to computerize land records under the “Bhoomi Project” followed by Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the year 2001. 

The lack of maintenance of land records resulted in litigations, property disputes and scams. 

Benefits of Digitization of Land Records

With the help of digitization, it is easier for Indian citizens to open and downland the land records of any state at any time. Computerization has decreased one’s time and energy circling government offices to get land records. The land records provide owner details, area of the land etc. Computerization has also helped resolve confusion between government-owned property and private-owned property.

●After verification, each farmer’s land would be linked to their Aadhaar number. The land division might be done more precisely using computerised maps, resulting in fewer land-related conflicts. Land inheritance would be simplified. Furthermore, property offences would be reduced automatically.

●Plan and occupancy certificate approvals are now easier to get online. The status of a particular piece of property will be available online. Digital records for the land involved in court disputes will also be public.

●Certificates primarily based on land data (e.g., domicile certificate, caste certificate, income certificate etc.) will be given to the citizens digitally. 

●Information on eligibility for Government applications will be available in a single place.

●Digitization of Land Records will help in better management of land records with a single window to deal with all land records. It will encompass the renovation and updating of maps, surveys, and property registration.

●It also can be a valuable resource for online approvals of plans and occupancy certificates.

●It will aid in showcasing the company’s own reputation as well as the simplicity of common commercial enterprise approaches in the industry.

●Overall, it becomes less complicated for the developers and buyers to test the authenticity of the land or the property.

●Digitization can make each domestic and cross-border transaction time shorter with the click of a button

Land Record Nomenclature in the Various Indian States

Land Record Nomenclature in India varies from state to state. Below are the details of the land record nomenclature of some of the Indian states – 

StatesLand Record Nomenclature
Delhi NCRKhatauni
Himachal PradeshJamabandi
Jharkhand Khatiyan
Karnataka Pahani (RTC) & Khata (for Metro Property)
Kerala Thandapper & Field Extract
Madhya Pradesh Khasra
Maharashtra 7/12 & Property Card (for Metro Property)
Orissa ROR/Patta
Pondicherry (UT) Patta
Punjab Jamabandi
Rajasthan Jamabandi
Tamil Nadu Patta & Town Survey Land Register (TSLR for Metro Property)
Telangana Pahani
Uttar Pradesh Khatauni
West Bengal ROR/Khatian/Parcha 

State Wise Online Land Records  

India has various Land Records for all the states. Each state has its own Land Records e-portals.

Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Haryana and Himachal Pradesh
Jammu, and Kashmir
Madhya Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal 
Delhi NCR

Land Registration Process

Land registration is the registration of documents, changing the ownership, and other transactions that involve unmovable plots and properties. When a person purchases any plots or properties, it is suggested to get it registered with the authority for legal ownership of the land being bought

Verbal contract 

In a verbal agreement, both the seller and the buyer would have an oral discussion and ultimately agree to buy or sell the land. This can also involve a physical inspection of the site and negotiations on price.

Preparation of contract 

After the agreement is verbally final, it must be recorded on the mandatory legal document. These document papers can be prepared by anyone, although it is suggested that one should always consult a property lawyer to ensure authenticity.

Pay stamp duty 

The buyer must pay the stamp duty once the paperwork is done.

Execute and register 

After the stamp duty, the buyer must execute the sale deed and register the land by visiting the registration office and submitting all the documents.

Property mutation 

Now, coming to the final step, which is the mutation of the property. When a property or land is mutated, the new owner receives the title to the property in his or her name from the land revenue agency. For this process, the buyer has to visit the local municipal office. 

List of Necessary documents

To register a property, the following documents are needed:

-Identity proof like Voter ID Card, Aadhaar Card, PAN Card, Driving License, Passport or any other identity proof by the Government of India of both the buyer and the seller.

-The Assessment slip contains the market value and charge-ability of stamp duty and registration fees.

-PAN card, identity proof, and address proof of both the buyer and seller.

-Details of the broker (if any) involved in the transaction are also needed.


In conclusion, if you are buying or selling your land, you should thoroughly know all the details about it. Check the identity of your buyer or seller and collect brief information about that particular land. Take any property lawyer’s advice during the paperwork to avoid future legal issues. Buying or selling land should be done by following all the government rules and one should be very careful during the whole process.

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Kuheli Raha

A freelance content writer and bookworm. Loves to spread content over social media and writing. Looking for next travel destination.